Covering about 27 acres, it defended the town from land attacks from the east. Its main section was a hornwork that essentially continues the walls surrounding the city. In front of the hornwork were three fortifications: the San Carlos and Santiago ravelins and the Trinidad counterguard; a dry moat surrounded them. Beyond the moat was a sizable plaza de armas open area that led out to a strong fort whose arrow-shape led it to be called El Abanico the Fan. Seaward from El Abanico are Santa Teresa, a battery aimed at the ocean, and La Princesa, whose guns could fire towards the sea and land.
By the end of the s San Juan was one of the most heavily fortified cities in the Americas, so much so that military facilities had taken over much of the old city. These defenses proved their effectiveness in , when they helped Spanish soldiers repulse 7, British soldiers besieging San Juan. Questions for Reading 2 1. Locate La Fortaleza on Map 2. What were the problems with its location?
Why did the Spanish choose to fortify " el morro "? How could these two work together to defend the harbor entrance? Determining the Facts Reading 2: The Evolution of a Defensive System San Juan's first defensive building was Casa Blanca, a substantial structure used to store weapons and government funds. And that putative megascope must have been very efficient, because, for that time, the drawings are remarkably well done. After all, the microscope had been invented in the beginning of the sixteenth century; Leeuwenhoek constructed his own lenses and microscopes and from on he wrote letters to the Royal Society of London describing his amazing discoveries.
Optical instruments were well developed in the Netherlands. This is a subject that should deserve further researches by specialists in the history of Dutch science and technology. Marcgrave also talked about culicids, publishing the first illustration of a Brazilian one:. Pilis longis ab utroque latere, ordine decoratus, usque ultra medietatem, muscarii modo, extremitas pilos breviusculos habet.
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Corpus ellypticum, sex habet crura, longa, tribos internodiis constantia, ultima sectio teres, longissima: in extremitate longo rostillo sanguinem exsugit: alae illi duae in postica parte mediae sectionis. Totum insectum vestitur pilis subtilibus brevibus flavescentibus. Caput nigrum flavo mixtum. Rostrum com finis cirrhis punctulatum nigro obscure flavescit. Multas saepe noctes insomnes egi hujus insecti causa: nec igne nec alia re abigi potest unicum remedium habetur, sed non ita proficuum, ut accendatur fimus bibulus siccatur, cujus fumus paulum arcentur.
Icon per megascopium fuit delineata. Item aliud quod marigui vocatur, minutissimum quidem sed tam crudeliter homines affligens ut vix tolerari possit".
It is a small, buzzing mosquito, with round head, to which are attached two somewhat curved cirrhi; that is, next to each eye a long cirrhus is found, conveniently ornamented with long hairs, in both sides, up to beyond the middle, similar to a horse's queue; the tip, however, has shorter hairs. The body is elliptical, with six long legs and composed of three parts; the last section [abdomen] is rounded and very long.
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At the [anterior] tip, by means of a long and little beak, it sucks blood; at the extreme part of the median section [thorax] two wings are found. This insect is covered by some slender hairs, yellowish in colour; the median section [thorax] is black, inlaid with dark yellow spots; the last one [abdomen] is dark yellow, shadowed with black, having the shape of several united rings, where the intestines are [emphasis ours].
The head is black mixed with yellow; the beak with its cirrhi is yellow with black dots.
The other two hairy cirrhi are pale yellow and contain some small black dots, orderly placed. This insect abounds, during the night, in swampy and maritime places; it bites violently, even through the clothes, and causes an intense itching; it brings a great discomfort with its clangorous voice. I had many nights of insomnia because of this insect; nor was it possible to out it by fire or other thing. There is only one remedy, not entirely efficient, that is, to burn dry ox dung to out it a little.
This image was delineated by means of a megascope [emphasis ours]. Some say that this insect is called by the Indians Yatium; this region, however, produces another kind of lazy and tame class of mosquitoes, although very peevish, devoid of a sting, called Ietinga. There is another yet, called marigui , very small, but it pesters men so much that it is almost unbearable]. That note was probably inserted by Jan de Laet, referring to culicids yatium , chloropids ietinga and ceratopogonids marigui.
Although making only a fleeting remark, Marcgrave's statement about the mosquito abdomen "where the intestines are" may lead us to think that he dissected the specimen; if this true, he was a pioneer in that, as the dissections and illustrations of internal organs of insects would only be published, e. Mberobi -: "Tandem tertium genus Culicum restat describendum, quod Mberobi dictum diversae est magnitudinis, adeoque profunde pungens, ut aculeum vulneri infixum relinquat, isque mox corrupta parte laesa transmutetur in insectum huic Mberobi simile, habens sex crura, quorum ultimum par longissimum.
Cornicula duo in capite, alae quatuor varigatae. Tota musca viridis est cum aureo mixti, in fronte sapphirini coloris. Oculis nigri corniculares". It is of a different size and stings so deeply that it leaves the sting buried in the wound; the sting, as the offended part becomes corrupted, transforms itself into an insect similar to the Mberobi , with six legs, the posterior pair of which is very long. It has two small horns in the head.
Four variegated wings. The entire fly has a golden-green colour, sapphire-blue on the front. The eyes are black and coracoid]. This text of Piso is extremely elusive. It may be interpreted as a reference to Dermatoba hominis , but Piso says "pungens" stings and that this "Mberuobi" left the sting within the wound. He admitted that by spontaneous generation and the corruption of the wound matter, a larva would result, in the end transforming itself into a new Mberuobi. However, he says that this insect has four wings.